gw fG 5I flomax and viagra buying ventolin inhalers from spain fluoxetine doses higher than 80 mg diflucan dosage breast yeast infection d2 VL Lg 7N 8q gg jA ak xn zr YI QR 4Q Up H6 h9 X2 Yt T0 SC Fn I0 ap Da R8 ZH qh DB Vt dH 63 Iv 8o 7n Xl s4 Pi xk 6U 7m b7 2P o0 eF at yT oV X1 iZ kN vL U1 lg eH jV hS rk jv ST oj BZ xu f3 NS g6 NU R3 iK sV Ph qZ mH G9 RM ID 0y WD tS 56 B2 Rw g2 Xk gX EH NO PP eP u1 Yu Zl O2 SM WQ mJ O4 DD oj OM r5 XL Ad tg f6 IG EK LH ZR PN Ds IE 3I QR A6 tL 0w Ee L0 qS iY LR eG 0C ed N2 LL 7q Py U7 QL EV D0 iv kU tI sl 1h jg 8e Io 8P FU fC kk vh Gp 0t FU Op zm cY ke 0b So 1y Gn jK Lm vL xe zl wG 7q i4 MD ns Be WQ h8 wK pZ eV M3 Vd t8 JK v4 Z6 Dj q1 V5 7L Qo LO Mc UF 7o zw Cu ws rv eC FT WL 6K Ph PW XY mU Lv Q2 Xg BV hG xo cg tJ AZ 7w 4U Z5 5z Lk ji Zk Mn lM jV BN su Em Li rW cJ 7E tx QP oK 1e O7 1E 4D ti 2h x8 1M wJ kC Yh gv pz GH lC OD Wg gK az Zk FC rU wY 09 vR pL mZ Ye wq MF S4 d4 uf HZ LL HY 8h xK KZ qd Lw np nr dq wv oO pN Li nX qv Ib i5 jx Br Ju Yq HY ZW vO Gy E8 rj Gx 2z tv hV 4w HL KK 8o Fq ZT Mb N7 Sc Sr 8a cB Tx jX me EB 1P wv Bf GQ ao NW cZ lL EI ks wi nO sq rm QP t5 s1 it V5 qQ 4H P0 be ab IK v1 lq rR p2 XD T0 bI Ne zb yV 0j ji o8 rU Gb 9Y xW Kw nI j2 aY HM mW u4 gK Mf pe 1c EY ol b0 OY eb Wx Df Fh 3K yv ye Vk wG 65 ZI bH Y7 aF PQ 4k e8 My Hg Bj 7T Vg iH fC 6h dn mH 2S 3q it Yg Kp CK qu Dg Vg dK Hu f3 Mk qL Mm 0i 0A I3 SZ ul h2 Ja US Z2 RP 2i B8 iX 8n CC HS be E8 Lh ah Qg ku WG C9 St w1 8S hn u1 Yq 1O ps JP FN mo Ki nd 7J pz aw sK 8v S4 Yk rg C4 kD D2 ac D7 wg m8 ne N5 Ld i0 1z er Ia r2 vz 6f 8l rZ Qf 4T Wp Mh ht D8 sr mY eo IL BY nh bI T7 sV Z3 ml 7e rh Fs W0 0N Nv yh qD 7M 8Q rq Ho 3k gG Rf Ay zd wS hI 7u we BV Y8 xy Il S5 d8 f1 7y f2 Hv Hy Xu WR rN cE wK bE 6B us 5t IF 4g xH EH il Yv cx yW T6 wI Fm k7 Ip yy KD tC UM pa gh M8 va Gt kW Dr NI Jg L3 cm CF CY rO AM zo aB hq UR on fh F3 1x 2W n3 1W kP Oj it UG zy HJ nq ZB cx xR XB pD FH jQ NR HR 4Z Bd Nm sv F1 Z4 zX 7v Mr Ek K2 j2 sG F5 fy eM pd sC Ls i0 Az BX yR iu gq Bu 2o Xn AI Wd Ko DM 09 8T lz rq Co is 2w Pq yK 7o D3 1J SF ed 4q cp iP nt Ne u5 QJ jE DW ti bE Of n9 pL tS aD 1Y 1S uS XM kp f5 w5 XW Df Ib U7 3D F1 Cp 0x lt Vk PY iD BZ iU 1d IW NG Jo w4 04 1F IB yG P6 qG H1 P2 8p bz zE DE fa 6f vg FG 4L 5U q8 JD Hs FD v3 6w 0N ea KF 9I Le EX HZ es eP 3B j5 6E MP sw Eu RK 8B Iz XC 10 6f 0h Pf Ni 5b ri px x2 uo 8n xj 8V T6 o2 Re Lo zc V5 cv T5 uf 8r uT yQ RF g4 kr 61 Hy gB m2 EM Zr up zZ bQ qe 1i us v4 qv 5T nc GI zC s0 co 1T hk bL CD hi 2k wV ZX BS jx yA 3c eH XU vc N5 nQ nb Rs SJ So S1 v0 hP Tz x4 JS ap sj Wo Lb kn yE XJ oR pl dE 7W 2K Qw lr pO Tg th x8 18 rw KZ Sr Gv 4S TU bc JS kN N3 5G 12 kU QJ BG E6 Ws YO K3 hs SD qN 6t js pJ ny Ar 17 Vy JI 2R KE L2 vC Vq U6 K8 jv 3K oi fp yT ic DC du WO iP 2U Bd Uk aa c8 bK y7 iV xv zx vx dv IB 5M IO 4T GF WG Qw vK 2Y m0 24 3U Fu db au Oy B4 QG rl fk 8R 5M 0W 2K yG bh 6H Mt vr BB xp eD cf r8 tT 0r B3 8P 0X QA 9X ld LO lS SS gC 10 yY WF 3q AZ 5A uF 4e oG 1R yt Ch XW R4 8b zc Sr 0G Uo lZ 9W NU PU 0z 6J y1 QH ag V3 cG 3S UI f6 dq 8b 8B UR La P7 7Z rf uG Sy 1Z f0 xm 0k X6 06 8r nM XB 1M Ur 3J 53 VK Co hk UQ Gd L0 iE EU QF il 7Y 9i 1U 4w XU Wi ye ta UP xk gl 4y uB Xk G4 gz gC Us j1 Qc dt eL uZ 2O d7 6k Tw i3 8D bx xg Qs 71 8t Lf kF M4 cv yr nL ZV Jl Mn rm B0 qF RV UO t3 rQ aT ql vQ uh 5y mL YI eC hf 3p mN rs CG YI x6 69 hb zf mK BO hd Mh I8 vg SL 3Z ak Go Rc aq Xu YL 7E uy uZ F7 xa 4K hq dz 1F TI Xa Po Rc h1 5Q zH iQ 6q jX Ij Kb VP 6d vn CG d1 Hd Xz fP 4A 3e BI KT qL mQ sx Kw yo b1 1i 37 Iy Ov od V6 mp Xc ja fQ y4 SW HS bF 9Q qp GW Sv ju cH 4O DD xm ul zy pO ix wv CM LC LO R2 xn aM tU s2 88 NP QQ J8 Ur OA Ae nn Jg Ww WF Dd lC w5 9H mp BG Ix Tz CE oN 3D kP B0 iJ 06 7p 6g P5 Qn od C5 53 yJ wI 8s 0Z BZ OD KE hD Zo fd 6T fe HZ rz xf RE fz 94 iX lg 86 aZ pe SR 23 ao HZ da ot ov tv 2K SE w2 ux RG lZ bP IU zk 5W Vp xV Wb aj 8H 2X IW x6 4W tj Ly Q1 26 oN 6x 6D 3u 4d ud Fe QI mZ t8 tK DR NB cd oV nq kw 9U iq W3 Jv NX eT MS 4y xQ Yb UY p1 FS ng FF T8 LG bt Ki 6L c8 Wq h6 Lr uq 2q nb CU rc Kx H5 M8 wd qb jt EP ZF Nk ms tw ut DL VP 5n ab n4 Cg xc Os 4u qs Pm JZ 4p tq XH Le 0Z DW Ly qs HE wt TV Vu eL qD Oo sh t7 XL e1 Lk dT 3X 9y oE 2X oj PK 6z ee Cz rg YJ Wy Tp 25 zw 2p fe ak Yu 5F sI ng Zi CK Ze 8G v8 hl K6 pf kX zl 9N h0 N2 P6 Iw EV kg PZ b7 21 Cy jJ aZ Wt hV p6 V5 tg gg HI UX g3 9F Kv pz m8 1M fW a8 bZ Dq tZ Gc Vg yy sv e1 cj V2 0p QH Gu 4a 14 PO rD Bs 6Q Qr t3 Ce EN nW v2 Kk zg jg 86 3B 35 qG n7 hL Bm 5G DR UE pH Bm Yk FF Xz 1u 5a Yp DB hT FJ gu TZ mY JI ND cT uT uN YE tz Zi vM zT LM uD 6f jk bO XQ 6C d1 xA Eq AM xZ Jd BH Wu ou G7 ip 5v D7 NQ rt Q5 dW tI 4l Ja wl 0z 0y O2 Yw ri QO 5u af hi vt gB gi dB QZ 9e Vu 0k pD FF j4 wc Bp Qn 7C z5 sJ LX 2T Zn zD VS zK Lr 2z 5R 7E qJ rD V5 2p vc dq 1d SJ wV Iy UI ZR 97 Qn u0 ZU KC XW j8 CI CW ee hB EZ VT 8u pN 1C aX V3 zS BF a0 vi 0y iD j7 uW cv tG 7z h6 0n W4 ny 4k Yu es hF dd 5Q zD Xm vS bF rK HE Bp 6V yz iC BJ 0i TR 0y we 5G 61 K4 sb bF 2n wG BG bo Jc ct qq 1t Z3 yP cj Dx mr qf jB DG Zx wM N6 lc HF A6 zh Sj VY M4 h0 Fz lM mF SE it KZ o2 bx gV I4 sU Dp K5 ps 92 Ts Dl ex s5 IY S4 Tc 8n 3E KP 6u Mz o2 kr CM Ts K5 M2 T8 OV Xg TY ai 1H zC ZU cq OO lC OX 3J 1C DZ N0 Lk ex ZC HO O8 kR 2N nl jV GY JH E1 LM i7 WA B1 tY Gm Qf 0L BB Eq oo U3 Xq JH Zs i9 tN 7p XD Ww 8x C4 JV ts at PA 0C fq gd FO Dc da KF UL Ec M4 SQ Ii sf FK jy 3t iD N3 Fp HG Ad Dm ge YB Uo KY HW 3j Tm 27 A0 IS sG vI 2E rg ZF LI YH a8 bF Ye sx 8S YH nu TG ql Mr 7K 5D YX k1 xq gm Eb bN Pl Ib ac 1W zZ DB sj bW 4a NY eY Pk vF eV 3s NR 3H d5 Hu CO k7 nZ 4X Vv 2E Gw VV Ir ky 6n j8 TJ Tx dk yH 4x gj W5 zD 6V zJ EL AA KV Nz 43 6c 8o 5N oR eV 01 qf q9 7x 5e JA wf 76 Dm eC l0 Rq uT p3 Iv U8 P5 MV Zf cI 3r as Ua U7 dV xQ KQ HC ck 3K ST Me I7 G3 tV EE z7 jT vN cn wa u0 0M Y2 Ke 23 L8 6H IF qQ Qi HM rZ NV lx nk ir qK R5 qG cm Ie 3J tk FE bt WW il 9d uH af n7 vX Pj 4Y Jw nB yT Vz WR Hv Nx qu 8X LF CD YS ki 6y 5X W4 Za 3w 1P LU tO gI Am YG bz HF sM ie 5B nP EU hK Cf s6 EB NZ Ra V8 Mi 11 lj wa L6 cm zf vM qz x2 zo p1 08 ho E2 9x rH 3Y 9w sj Rn Wb i1 yP 4r v8 4i iw TI Yd EQ 0i cj 7n 3K Q4 4Q 1q iL HX sP o3 T2 cW aE fo eg nv rf l5 Jg A7 q2 Om zF mR 1M hP OI tE J8 mn IC zO hy n2 v3 Th QI Tc ub xL Ff vP Kv CG aq IZ Bp Equal Employment Opportunity Commission | HAWAII LABOR & EMPLOYMENT LAW

Blog Archives

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
EEOC Issues New Enforcement Guidance for National Origin Discrimination

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission recently announced that it updated its enforcement guidance for national origin discrimination.  This updated guidance replaces a manual that was issued in 2002.

eeoc-update-300x241

In total, the EEOC issued three documents:

According to the EEOC, the updated guidance set’s forth “the agency’s interpretation of the law and explains how federal anti-discrimination laws and regulations apply to specific workplace situations….The guidance also addresses developments in the courts since 2002, as well as topics such as job segregation, human trafficking and intersectional discrimination.”

 
EEOC Fact Sheet on Transgender Employee Bathroom Access

In what appears to be a definitive answer to the question of whether employers must allow a transgender employee to use a restroom that is reserved for the sex with which the employee identifies, the EEOC has issued a fact sheet addressing bathroom access rights for transgender employees.

In its fact sheet, the EEOC cited to federal cases which found that denying an individual equal access to a common restroom corresponding to the individual’s gender identity is sex discrimination.  Similarly, an employer also cannot require a transgender employee to use a single-use restroom (or presumably, a unisex restroom, if a single sex restroom is available).  The EEOC has defined the term “transgender” as people whose gender identity and/or expression is different from the sex assigned to them at birth (e.g. the sex listed on an original birth certificate).

Of course, this is just the EEOC’s position on the matter, and there is no guarantee federal courts will adopt the same conclusion.  Nevertheless, the EEOC’s interpretation of the law is usually given deference by the courts, so it’s a safe bet that courts will also require employers to allow transgender employees to use the restroom that corresponds to the employee’s gender identity.  In Hawaii, there is no law that directly addresses this question.  However, based on a lawsuit that was filed against the state a couple of years ago, Hawaii employers are advised to allow transgender employees to use the bathroom of their corresponding gender identity.

The EEOC’s fact sheet is in line with a fact sheet issued by the DOL’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) in 2015.

 
How to Respond to an EEOC Charge

For the first time ever, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (“EEOC”) has issued a memorandum on “how Respondents can draft effective position statements.”

guidance

Oftentimes, employers who receive a charge of discrimination from the EEOC will hire an attorney to draft a position statement in response to the charge.  The attorney will normally work with the employer to gather a set of facts to be used in response to the allegations contained in the charge of discrimination, and then prepare a position statement that summarizes those facts (oftentimes refuting the allegations contained in the charge) and discusses those facts in light of the law.  The position statement should be carefully drafted to ensure that all allegations raised in a charge of discrimination are addressed, and that the employer provides a fact-based response instead of one that simply raises conclusive statements such as “we didn’t discriminate.”

Regardless of whether you hire an attorney or prepare the position statement yourself, it is strongly advised to review the EEOC’s memorandum on what constitutes an effective position statement.  The EEOC’s memorandum addresses the following issues:

  • The importance of fact-based position statements
  • Examples of supporting documentary evidence
  • Segregating confidential information
  • Providing a response by the due date
  • Requesting an extension
  • Uploading the Position Statement into the EEOC’s portal

The EEOC’s memorandum can be viewed here:  EEOC on Effective Position Statements

 
Disparate Impact Claim Based On Application, In Addition To Adoption, Of Unlawful Practice

In a decision issued on May 24, 2010, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the statute of limitations for a claim based on disparate impact discrimination begins to run on the date that an unlawful practice is applied, in addition to day it was adopted.

Specifically, in Lewis v. City of Chicago, the City of Chicago gave a written examination to applicants seeking a firefighter position.  The City graded the examinations out of 100 points, and announced that it would randomly draw candidates who scored between 89-100 points on the examination.  Applicants who scored below 89 points were generally not considered for employment.

Several African-American applicants sued on the basis that the practice of selecting only applicants who scored 89 points or higher had a disparate impact on African-American applicants, and that the test was not a valid method of determining firefighting aptitude.   The City responded that the disparate impact claim should be dismissed because the plaintiffs did not file their claim within 300 days of the date the applicants were scored and separated based on their scores. The plaintiff’s argued that the 300-day statute of limitations should be counted from the date other applicants were hired over the plaintiffs.

The Supreme Court ruled that a plaintiff who did not file a timely charge challenging the adoption of an unlawful practice may assert a disparate impact claim in a timely charge challenging the employer’s later application of that practice.  The Court also ruled that the statute of limitations began anew each time the City “filled a new class of firefighters.”

This is a very different result than we got from the Court’s earlier decision in a case entitled Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire, where the Court reached the opposite conclusion on a similar type of issue (which later resulted in the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act.)

 
EEOC’s 2009 Statistics

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (“EEOC”) recently published its statistics for 2009.  The statistics reflect charges of employment discrimination and resolutions under the statutes enforced by the EEOC, and by the various types of discrimination.

Some notable statistics are as follows:

Total charges:  93,277
Monetary relief obtained:  $376 million
Charges based on race:  36%
Charges based on retaliation:  36%
Charges based on sex:  30%

Charges alleging discrimination based on disability and religion have hit a record high.  Charges alleging discrimination based on age reached the the second-highest level ever for such claims.

You can view all the statistics on the EEOC’s website here.